Class 10 Gender, Religion and Caste holds significant importance in the Political Science subject. The provided content is presented in a concise and exam-friendly format. In Class 10, Chapter 3, students explore three primary types of social differences: gender, religion, and caste. This chapter offers valuable insights into these social distinctions and their implications for society and politics.
In Class 10 Political Science Chapter 3, Gender,Religion and Caste, the concept of gender division is often perceived as natural and immutable, but it is not rooted in biology; rather, it is shaped by societal expectations and stereotypes. The chapter on "Gender, Religion, and Caste" in the Political Science subject holds significant importance as it sheds light on these social distinctions and their multifaceted dimensions. It helps students understand how these distinctions influence and impact society and politics.
The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work.
The region with the highest representation of women in their national parliaments is the Nordic countries. This region, consisting of countries such as Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland.
Caste is considered to be the sole basis of social community. People belonging to the same caste belong to a natural social community and have the same interests which they share amongst themselves and no one else. Caste can take various forms in politics.
(i) Caste composition of an electorate is always kept in mind when the nominations are decided by the party during elections. They tend to nominate candidates of different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections. When governments are formed, the parties make sure that these candidates of different castes find a place in the set up. Political parties are known to favour some castes and are even recognized as representatives of these castes. This brings prejudice and biases in terms of decisions, ideologies and other such important matters.
(ii) Universal Adult franchise has helped in compelling the political parties to mobilise and have an inclusive approach towards the castes that were earlier ignored by them. However, the inclusion of caste in politics has brought unnecessary violence and controversies. Parties try to favour certain castes and in this way, secure vote banks. Parties also incite people on the pretext of casteism, thus creating political disasters.
There are several ways in which women face discrimination in society:
(i) There is gender bias in society and women are considered fit only for household work which is not right.
(ii) Women are paid less than men, even though both do exactly the same work.
India is a vast country having lots of differences. People are divided on the basis of religion too. Religion influences the political setup in our country. Mahatma Gandhi said. Religion can never be separated from politics” in India. Religion like Hinduism or Islam guides the politics. Religion based politics is not always as dangerous as they look like. The values of religions can play a vital role in politics. India is a democratic country having the followers of each religion who have equal rights and prevents discrimination and oppression for celebrating practice of religion.
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Ans: Yes, gender discrimination does exist in several parts of the world, even today
Ans: It is essential to raise awareness among children about societal issues and to ensure equal treatment for both sons and daughters within a household.
Ans: Women in India face discrimination and disadvantages in several areas, including literacy, higher education, and access to high-paid jobs. Despite efforts since independence, the gender gap in literacy rates persists, with a lower rate for women at 65.46% compared to 82.14% for men. Additionally, fewer girls pursue higher education, often dropping out after school due to limited resources allocated to their education. Moreover, the representation of women in high-paying jobs remains disproportionately low compared to men, despite women working longer hours on average. Unfortunately, much of their work goes unpaid and, consequently, undervalued.
Ans: Communal politics takes on various forms, encompassing expressions of communal superiority, aspirations for majoritarian dominance or separate states, the utilisation of religious symbols and leaders for voter appeal, and even instances of communal violence and riots.
Ans: In terms of women's representation in legislative bodies, India ranks among the lower echelons globally, with women holding less than 10% of the seats in the Lok Sabha and 5% in State Assemblies.
Conversely, the scenario differs when it comes to local government bodies. In these bodies, a minimum of one-third of seats in panchayats and municipalities is reserved for women, resulting in over 10 lakh elected women representatives in both rural and urban local bodies.