Here, you'll discover significant inquiries pertaining to Chapter 7: Metallurgy for ICSE Class 10 Chemistry. These inquiries are carefully designed to aid students in preparing for the ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Examination in 2023–24. Engaging with different question formats allows students to address uncertainties, improve their exam preparedness, boost their self-assurance, and polish their ability to solve problems.
In Chapter 7 of ICSE Class 10 Metallurgy , you will explore the concept of Metallurgy. This chapter covers the following topics:
This chapter provides a comprehensive understanding of metallurgical processes, including their principles, methods, and applications.
In the ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 7 “Metallurgy," metallurgy is a structured process used to acquire metals in their pure form. Minerals are compounds containing metal elements combined with elements like soil, limestone, sand, and rocks. The cost-effective extraction of metals from these mineral combinations, known as ores, demands minimal resources and effort. Within the furnace, a component introduced into the mixture to remove unwanted impurities, referred to as gangue, is termed flux. Metallurgy encompasses both the refining of metals and the formation of alloys.
Bronze is an alloy composed primarily of copper, along with varying proportions of tin. It's one of the earliest alloys developed by humans and has been used for thousands of years due to its desirable properties, such as durability, malleability, and resistance to corrosion. The addition of tin to copper in bronze improves the hardness and strength of the metal, making it suitable for various applications, including tools, weapons, sculptures, and decorative objects. While zinc is not a primary component of bronze, it can sometimes be present in small amounts as an impurity or as an intentional addition for specific purposes.
Froth flotation process for the concentration of sulphide ores illustrates the application of adsorption because in this process ores are adsorbed on the surface of the froth collector.
Cryolite and fluorspar are added to alumina :
(i) To lower the melting point of aluminium.
(ii) To make alumina a good conductor of electricity.
(iii) Cryolite acts as a solvent for alumina.
The Hall-Heroult process is the electrolytic process of alumina to obtain molten aluminium. In the Hall-Heroult process, powdered coke is used to reduce heat loss by radiation and prevent the burning of anode. In the Hall-Heroult process, pure alumina is mixed with cryolite. This results in a lowering of the melting point of the mixture, so its ability to conduct electricity increases. A steel vessel with a lining of carbon and graphite is used in the process.The carbon lining acts as cathode and carbon lining acts as anode. After passing electricity through the electrolyte consisting of a carbon electrode, oxygen is formed at anode. This leads to the formation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by reacting the formed oxygen with the carbon anode. In this process, for every 2 units of aluminium formed 1 unit of carbon anode is burned. To prevent this burning of anode we use powdered coke as a covering for the electrolyte.
(a) Magnesium oxide, Iron (II) oxide, Lead (II) oxide, and then copper (II) oxide
(b) (1) Ionic bonding (or electrovalent bonding) is expected in metallic chlorides. Metals transfer their excess electrons to nonmetals that are electron deficient. Thus, both attain stability and form an ionic or electrovalent bond. Example: in sodium chloride, sodium donates its one extra electron to chlorine. Therefore, sodium loses one electron and chlorine gains one electron, attaining stability in the process and forming an ionic bond.
(2) Fused metal chloride contains free ions: metal cations and chloride anions. If fused metal chloride is electrolyzed, the positively charged metal ions (cations) are attracted toward the cathode (negatively charged electrode). These metal ions obtain electrons from the cathode and get reduced to metal atoms. Example: During the electrolysis of fused sodium chloride, sodium ions are attracted to the cathode.
(3) Even though graphite (an allotrope of carbon) is a non-metal, it is a good conductor of electricity. Thus, graphite conducts electricity and resembles metal in terms of its electrical conductance.
The study of metallurgy in ICSE Class 10 Chemistry offers valuable insights into the fascinating world of metals and their extraction. From the identification of minerals and ores to the various methods of ore concentration and purification, this chapter equips you with essential knowledge about metallurgical processes.To further solidify your grasp of these concepts and enhance your preparation, consider exploring additional practice resources. oswal.io offers an extensive array of questions and resources designed to complement your learning journey. These materials provide valuable opportunities to test your knowledge, hone your skills, and reinforce the principles of metallurgy covered in this chapter.
Ans: The different techniques used in ore enrichment include:
Ans: Roasting involves heating ore in the presence of air, whereas calcination entails heating ore without the presence of air.
Ans: The metal obtained through the extraction process from ores often carries impurities like carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and similar substances.The choice of refining method for a particular metal depends on both its inherent characteristics and the types of impurities present. Consequently, a range of techniques is utilised for this purpose. Among these methods, electrolysis stands out as highly significant and yields exceptionally pure metals.
Ans: Reduction is carried out to obtain the metal from the ore. Typically, reduction is achieved through one of the following methods:
Ans: Smelting involves heating ore to extract a fundamental metal and is a form of extractive metallurgy. Various base metals like silver, iron, copper, and others are obtained from their ores through this process.