Here, you'll discover significant inquiries pertaining to Chapter 2: Chemical Bonding for ICSE Class 10 Chemistry. These inquiries are carefully designed to aid students in preparing for the ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Examination in 2023–24. Engaging with different question formats allows students to address uncertainties, improve their exam preparedness, boost their self-assurance, and polish their ability to solve problems.
In Class 10 Chemical Bonding, you will delve into the Electron Dot Structures of Electrovalent compounds like NaCl, MgCl2, and CaO. You'll also explore the distinctive properties of electrovalent compounds, including their physical states, melting and boiling points, conductivity (both heat and electricity), dissociation in solutions, and when in a molten state, which will be connected to electrolysis. Moreover, the chapter covers the Electron Dot Structures of covalent molecules based on the concepts of duplet and octet of electrons. Examples include hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, and methane. It will also discuss Polar Covalent compounds, which are determined by differences in electronegativity. Examples provided are HCl, NH3, and H2O, along with their respective structures. Furthermore, you'll learn about the characteristic properties of covalent compounds, such as their physical states, melting and boiling points, conductivity (heat and electricity), and ionisation in solution. A comparison between Electrovalent and Covalent compounds will be made. The chapter will define Coordinate Bonding and explain the lone pair effect observed in the oxygen atom of the water molecule and the nitrogen atom of the ammonia molecule. These explanations will help illustrate the formation of H3O+ and OH- ions in water and the NH4+ ion. The concept of a lone pair will be clarified, and the formation of hydronium ions and ammonium ions will be elucidated using electron dot diagrams. If you're looking for chemical bonding class 10 ICSE important questions or questions on chemical bonding class 10, make sure to refer to the Oswal textbooks or oswal.io for comprehensive practice.
In ICSE Class 10 Chapter 2, "Chemical Bonding," the concept of chemical bonding comes to the forefront. This fundamental process involves the establishment of chemical connections among two or more atoms, molecules, or ions, ultimately culminating in the formation of a chemical compound. These chemical bonds play a pivotal role in maintaining the unity of the constituent elements within the resulting compound. The driving force behind this cohesion, which brings various components, such as atoms and ions, together and stabilises them by reducing the overall energy, is aptly termed chemical bonding. As we delve deeper into this topic, it becomes evident that the strength of these chemical bonds among constituents significantly influences the stability of the resulting compound. Stronger bonds contribute to greater stability, ensuring the compound's durability. Conversely, weak chemical bonding between constituents results in diminished stability, rendering the compound susceptible to further reactions aimed at producing more stable compounds with stronger bonds. In their pursuit of stability, atoms strive to minimise their energy levels. In interactions between different forms of matter, forces come into play. When these forces are attractive, they lead to an energy reduction. Conversely, repulsive forces drive an increase in energy. The attractive force responsible for binding two atoms together is recognized as a chemical bond. Thus, the study of chemical bonding forms the cornerstone of understanding the intricate relationships between atoms, molecules, and ions, influencing the stability and reactivity of compounds. For questions on chemical bonding class 10 ICSE important questions, you should refer to your class materials and textbooks for a comprehensive set of practice questions and exercises.
Ans. (d) One
In the given figure, one pair of bonds contains in the hydrogen molecule Electron dot structures of Non-polar covalent compound. The electronegativity difference is zero (diatomic molecule) and type of bonding is Non-polar covalent single bond.
Ans. (a) HF
HF is a polar molecule in which the H-F bond is a polar covalent bond due to unequal sharing of electrons between more electronegative F and less electronegative H atoms.
(i) 19E is a metal.8F and 17G are non-metals.
(ii) Molecular formula - EG
Type of bond - Ionic bond
The sharing of an electron pair from a single atom results in the formation of coordinate bonds, a sort of alternative covalent link. The same atom is responsible for both shared electron contributions.
The characteristics of covalent compounds
1. Covalent compounds can be found in the form of gases, liquids, or soft solids.
2. Covalent compounds typically have low melting and boiling points.
3. Insoluble in water, covalent compounds dissolve in organic solvents.
4. In a solid, molten, or liquid form, they don't conduct electricity.
The exploration of "Chemical Bonding" in ICSE Class 10 Chemistry has provided a fundamental understanding of the forces that bind atoms, molecules, and ions together to form chemical compounds. The study of chemical bonds, both strong and weak, is paramount in comprehending the stability and reactivity of these compounds.Throughout this chapter, we've delved into the intricacies of attractive and repulsive forces that govern the behaviour of matter at the atomic and molecular levels. For those seeking to excel in this critical area of chemistry, additional practice resources can be invaluable. Oswal.io offers a comprehensive collection of questions and study materials tailored to enhance your learning experience.
Ans: Atoms achieve stability when they possess eight electrons in their outermost orbit, which eliminates their inclination to engage in chemical reactions. On the other hand, atoms with fewer than eight electrons tend to interact with other atoms to attain an octet of electrons in their outermost orbit, thereby achieving stability. Atoms with a slight surplus of more than eight electrons may relinquish some to atoms deficient in electrons. Atoms that are unable to either lose or gain electrons may engage in electron sharing to attain an octet configuration. In cases where molecules still lack an octet configuration even after the reaction, they have the option to accept lone pairs of electrons from other atoms or molecules.
Ans: In metals, there is an overlapping of outer orbitals of atoms, causing the electrons within them to be shared among multiple atoms rather than being associated with a specific atom. This shared electron behaviour is what binds all the atoms together, a phenomenon known as metallic bonding. When atoms undergo a process of losing and gaining electrons, they transform into ions and are held together by the electrostatic forces of attraction, which is referred to as an ionic bond. In cases where atoms equally contribute and share electrons, these shared electrons become the binding force that holds the atoms together, forming a covalent bond.In situations involving electron-deficient or molecules containing free lone pairs, they can satisfy the electron-deficient atom's octet requirement. The shared electrons serve as a bridge between the electron-rich atom and the electron-deficient atom, creating a coordinate bond.
Ans: Sub-orbitals with reasonably comparable energy levels can combine to create a fresh set of orbitals with the same count as the contributing orbitals. These newly formed orbitals are known as hybridised orbitals. They serve a valuable purpose in elucidating the resemblances observed in the bond length, bond angles, structure, shape, and magnetic characteristics of molecules, with these properties being proportional to the contributing orbitals' numbers.
Ans: Sp3 orbitals originate from the s-subshell, where electrons are evenly spread around the nucleus, and the p-subshell, with electrons distributed along three perpendicular axes. Consequently, hybridised orbitals possess electron distribution in three-dimensional space, aligning with tetrahedral directions. In the case of dsp2 hybridization, all participating orbitals share the same plane for their electron distribution. Consequently, the resultant hybridised orbitals also lie within the same plane, leading to the formation of a square planar geometry.
Ans: An oxygen atom forms an oxygen molecule by sharing two electrons with another oxygen atom. Oxygen molecules display paramagnetism, indicating the presence of unpaired electrons. To explain this phenomenon, a molecular orbital theory has been introduced. According to this theory, atoms relinquish their individual orbitals and instead create an equivalent number of orbitals that encompass the entire molecule, hence the term "molecular orbital." The process of filling these orbitals in ascending energy levels results in the presence of unpaired electrons, which accounts for the paramagnetic characteristics observed in oxygen molecules.