Human Evolution

Class 10 Biology Chapter 13
Human Evolution
Important Questions

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Here, you'll find important questions related to Chapter 13 Human Evolution For ICSE Class 10 Biology. These questions have been crafted to assist students in their preparation for the ICSE Class 10 Biology Examination in 2023–24. By practising various question types, students can clarify their doubts, enhance their exam readiness, boost their confidence, and refine their problem-solving skills


The study of human evolution is a captivating journey through the annals of biological history. It not only sheds light on our ancient ancestors and their remarkable adaptations but also provides crucial insights into the fundamental concepts of biology. For students of Class 10 ICSE, grasping the intricacies of human evolution is a key aspect of their curriculum, and the pursuit of answers to important questions in biology holds great significance. In this exploration, we will embark on a fascinating voyage into the world of human evolution, delving into the origins of Homo sapiens, the processes of natural selection, and the remarkable fossil evidence that supports our understanding of this scientific narrative. Furthermore, we will underscore the value of addressing important questions for Class 10 ICSE biology, as they serve as guiding lights on this intellectual journey, helping students build a solid foundation in this compelling field of study.

What is Human Evolution?

Human evolution refers to the process of development and transformation of the human species, Homo sapiens, from ancestral primates over millions of years. It is a fascinating scientific journey that explores how modern humans have evolved from common ancestors shared with other primates, including apes and early hominins.
Key aspects of human evolution include:

  • Common Ancestry: The theory of evolution posits that all living organisms, including humans, share a common ancestry. This means that we are related to all other life forms on Earth through a vast tree of life.
  • Hominin Lineage: Within the broader context of primate evolution, the hominin lineage represents the specific branch that eventually led to modern humans. It includes various extinct species of early hominins, such as Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Neanderthals.
  • Fossil Evidence: The study of human evolution relies heavily on fossil evidence, including skeletal remains and artefacts. These fossils provide crucial insights into the physical and behavioural characteristics of our ancient ancestors.
  • Natural Selection: The theory of natural selection, proposed by Charles Darwin, is central to the understanding of human evolution. It explains how certain traits or characteristics that enhance an organism's survival and reproduction become more common in a population over time.
  • Biological and Cultural Adaptations: Human evolution involves not only biological changes but also cultural and behavioural adaptations. The development of tools, language, and complex societies has been a significant part of our evolutionary journey.
  • Genetics: Modern genetics and the study of DNA have played a vital role in confirming and refining our understanding of human evolution. DNA analysis has allowed scientists to trace human ancestry and migration patterns.

Human evolution is a dynamic and ongoing process. While the majority of changes in our species occurred in the distant past, it continues through small-scale genetic variations and adaptations in contemporary human populations. Understanding human evolution is not only a scientific pursuit but also provides valuable insights into the history, diversity, and nature of the human species.

important questions for class 10 biology icse

Class 10 Biology Human Evolution Important Questions and Answers

Q1. The prehistoric man which lived on earth during late Pleistocene period was :


(a) Neanderthal man
(b) Australopithecus
(c) Peking man
(d) Atlantic man

Ans. (a) Neanderthal man

Homo erectus neanderthalensis, also called as Neanderthal man evolved during the late Pleistocene epoch.

Q2. The brain capacity of Homo erectus was about :


(a) 650 c.c.
(b) 900 c.c.
(c) 1200 c.c.
(d) 1600 c.c.

Ans. (b) 900 c.c.
The stage of Homo erectus lived about 1.5 million years ago. They had an average cranial capacity of about 1000 cc, significantly larger than that of early hominids.
So, it can be concluded that Homo erectus had a large brain having cranial capacity around 900 cc.

Q3. List out any three characteristics of Homo habilis.

The characteristics are :
(i) Cranial cavity was about 735 cm3
(ii) Smaller moderately-prognathic face and smaller teeth
(iii) Showed bipedal gait

Q4. Which two adaptations helped the Java man to walk erect ?

The two adaptations were :
(i) Modern human-like body proportions
(ii) Relatively elongated legs and shorter arms

Q5. Differentiate between Man and Apes


Man Apes
Limited proportion of skin is covered with hair,. e.g.,top, back and sides of head, armpits and genitals(adults), sometimes chest and limbs (adult males). Act usually within the same cell or at the most close to the cell.
Skull supported on top of vertebral column. Skull hangs forward from the vertebral column.
Chemically may be proteins, steroids or
amino acids.
Face is larger than the cranium.
Walking upright with a “bipedal gait”. Walking with a “quadrupedal gait”.
Shows advanced communication and has the capacity to make tools. Communication is limited to certain signals and gestures.
important questions for class 10 biology icseimportant questions for class 10 biology icse

ICSE Class 10 Biology Chapter wise Important Questions

Chapter No. Chapter Name
Chapter 1 Structure of Chromosome, Cell Cycle and Cell division
Chapter 2 Genetics: Mendel's law of Inheritance
Chapter 3 Absorption by Roots- The Processes Involved
Chapter 4 Transpiration
Chapter 5 Photosynthesis
Chapter 6 Chemical Coordination in Plants
Chapter 7 The Circulatory System
Chapter 8 The Excretory System
Chapter 9 The Nervous System and Sense Organs
Chapter 10 The Endocrine System
Chapter 11 The Reproductive System
Chapter 12 Human Population
Chapter 13 Human Evolution
Chapter 14 Pollution


The study of human evolution stands as a testament to our enduring quest for knowledge about our origins and the remarkable journey that has led to the emergence of Homo sapiens. Moreover, in our quest for knowledge, resources such as provide invaluable support. offers a valuable resource in the form of a comprehensive collection of questions, aiding students in their preparation and deeper understanding of this crucial aspect of biology.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1 : What is the role of natural selection in human evolution?

Ans: An example of natural selection in humans is the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia in Africa. They are resistant to malaria infection in heterozygous conditions.

Q2 : Did humans have a third eyelid?

Ans: Human beings have remnants of the third eyelid called the nictitating membrane. It is a vestigial organ. It was present in our ancestors.

Q3 : What are vestigial structures in humans?

Ans: The palmar grasp reflex, wisdom teeth, tail bone, ear muscle, appendix etc. are the vestigial structures in humans.

Q4 : Describe the origin and evolution of humans in chronological order.

Ans: Ape-like, hairy primates called Dryopithecus and Ramapithecus existed 15 mya. Australopithecus existed 2 mya. They used stone weapons to hunt.
Then came the first human-like hominid called Homo habilis who had brain capacities of 650-800 cc.
Homo erectus existed 1.5 mya. They had a larger brain (900 ccs) and ate meat.
Neanderthals lived 1-0.4 mya. They used hides to protect their bodies.
The modern man i.e Homo sapiens came into existence 0.75-0.1 mya.

Q5 : Are evolution and speciation the same?

Ans: Speciation is a very slow process and it results in evolution. Speciation is the process of the formation of new species. Small variations in the gene pool of an organism, because of various factors such as mutation, sexual reproduction, geographical isolation, genetic drift, etc. result in the formation of distinct species. This process is very slow and takes millions of years.
Speciation-The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution. Evolution-The gradual development of something, especially from a simple to a more complex form.

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