Here, you'll discover significant inquiries pertaining to Chapter 9: Study of Compounds : Ammonia and Nitric Acid for ICSE Class 10 Chemistry. These inquiries are carefully designed to aid students in preparing for the ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Examination in 2023–24. Engaging with different question formats allows students to address uncertainties, improve their exam preparedness, boost their self-assurance, and polish their ability to solve problems.
In ICSE Class 10 Study of Compounds : Ammonia and Nitric Acid , you will delve into the laboratory preparation of ammonia using ammonium chloride, examining the entire process from apparatus setup and diagrams to procedures, observations, and methods of collection and identification. The chapter also covers the generation of ammonia from nitrides such as Mg3N2 and AlN through the use of warm water, as well as from ammonium salts using alkalies. Furthermore, you will explore the industrial production of ammonia via the Haber's Process, investigating properties like density and solubility through the fountain experiment. The chapter delves into the combustion of ammonia in oxygen and the catalytic oxidation of ammonia, providing details on the necessary conditions and reaction mechanisms. You will also explore ammonia's reactions with hydrogen chloride, hot copper (II) oxide, and chlorine, examining scenarios involving both excess chlorine and excess ammonia. Additionally, the chapter covers the behaviour of aqueous ammonia solutions when subjected to reactions with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and solutions of various metal compounds like iron (III) chloride, iron (II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate, and copper sulfate. Lastly, the chapter discusses the diverse applications of ammonia, including its role in the production of fertilisers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gases (such as Chlorofluorocarbons), and alternative, non-ozone-depleting cleansing agents.
In ICSE Class 10 "Study of Compounds: Ammonia and Nitric Acid," we delve into the detailed examination of these important chemical compounds. The chapter encompasses a comprehensive study of ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3), both of which have significant roles in various chemical processes and applications.
Ammonia (NH3): Ammonia is explored in terms of its laboratory preparation from ammonium chloride and collection. This preparation involves setting up the apparatus, providing diagrams, detailing procedures, observations, and explaining methods for collecting and identifying ammonia gas. Furthermore, the chapter covers alternative methods for generating ammonia, including from nitrides such as Mg3N2 and AlN using warm water and from ammonium salts using alkalies. The industrial production of ammonia through the Haber's Process is also discussed, shedding light on this crucial industrial application. Properties such as the density and solubility of ammonia are investigated, with a demonstration through the fountain experiment. Additionally, the chapter explores the combustion of ammonia in oxygen and the catalytic oxidation of ammonia, with a focus on the necessary conditions and reaction mechanisms. Ammonia's chemical reactions are a significant part of the chapter, encompassing its interactions with hydrogen chloride, hot copper (II) oxide, and chlorine. These reactions are examined in scenarios involving both excess chlorine and excess ammonia. The behaviour of aqueous ammonia solutions is also explored, including reactions with sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, and solutions of various metal compounds such as iron (III) chloride, iron (II) sulphate, lead nitrate, zinc nitrate, and copper sulfate. The chapter concludes with an overview of the diverse applications of ammonia, emphasising its role in the manufacture of fertilisers, explosives, nitric acid, refrigerant gases (including Chlorofluorocarbons), and cleansing agents.
Nitric Acid (HNO3): In addition to ammonia, the chapter also delves into the study of nitric acid. Nitric acid's preparation, properties, and chemical reactions are covered comprehensively. This includes methods of laboratory preparation, properties such as concentration and fuming nature, and various reactions, including its reaction with metals, non-metals, and organic compounds. Both ammonia and nitric acid play pivotal roles in the field of chemistry and have a wide range of industrial and practical applications. The study of these compounds is essential for a comprehensive understanding of their properties, behaviours, and the manifold ways they contribute to various chemical processes.
Ans. (a) Yellowish-green colour disappears
When excess ammonia reacts with yellowish-green chlorine gas then a two-step reaction takes place. The end product is ammonium chloride which has white fumes.
Ans. (d) N2 and H2
The Haber process is used for manufacturing ammonia gas on an industrial level. It utilises nitrogen and hydrogen gas for the production of ammonia.
Ammonia gas is produced when ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is heated.
When a moist piece of red litmus is placed in a gas jar containing ammonia, the ammonia will dissolve in the water of the litmus paper and turn into ammonium hydroxide, which is an alkali. The red litmus paper will then turn blue.
(i) The process used to manufacture ammonia is known as Haber's process.
(ii) One part of nitrogen by volume reacts with three parts of hydrogen by volume.
(iii) Finely divided iron is used as a catalyst.
(iv) The required equation is
N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 + Heat
(v) The reducing action of ammonia is demonstrated by
3PbO + 2NH3 → 3Pb + 3H2O + N2
The exploration of "Study of Compounds: Ammonia and Nitric Acid" in ICSE Class 10 Chemistry has provided a profound understanding of these essential chemical compounds. Throughout this chapter, we've delved into the laboratory preparation, properties, reactions, and versatile applications of ammonia and nitric acid, both of which play significant roles in the world of chemistry and industry. To facilitate your learning process and reinforce your understanding of ammonia and nitric acid, Oswal.io offers a comprehensive collection of questions and study materials. These resources not only provide opportunities to assess your knowledge but also enable you to enhance your proficiency in this fascinating field.
Ans: The Fountain Experiment demonstrates that ammonia gas possesses high solubility in water.
Ans: Ammonia has many applications:
1. Ammonia is used primarily as a fertiliser
2. Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant gas
3. Used in the production of explosives and plastics
4. It is used in the production of household cleaning solutions and industrial-strength cleaning solutions.
5. Ammonia also has applications as a pesticide.
6. Ammonia is also used in the manufacture of sodium carbonate by the Solvay process.
Ans: The uses of nitric acid along with the property involved include:
1. It is used in the purification of gold.
Property: Nitric acid dissolves impurities like copper, silver, zinc, etc.
2. It is used to engrave designs on copper.
Property: Nitric acid is a solvent for a large number of metals.
3. It is used to prepare aqua regia.
Property: It helps in dissolving noble metals.
Ans: When this reaction occurs, a gelatinous white precipitate of zinc hydroxide is formed. It is soluble in ammonium hydroxide.
Reaction: Zn(NO3)2+2NH4OH→2NH4+NO3+Zn (OH)2
Ans: When hydrogen chloride interacts with an alkaline gas like ammonia, it leads to the formation of ammonium chloride, resulting in a gas with neutral properties.